KENILWORTH, N.J.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--AstraZeneca and Merck (NYSE:MRK), known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, today presented detailed results from the Phase 3 PROfound trial in 387 men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who have a mutation in their homologous recombination repair (HRR) genes and whose disease had progressed on prior treatment with new hormonal agent (NHA) treatments e.g. abiraterone or enzalutamide.
The trial was designed to analyze men with mCRPC harboring HRR-mutated (HRRm) genes in two cohorts: the primary endpoint was in those with mutations in BRCA1/2 or ATM genes and then, if LYNPARZA showed clinical benefit, a formal analysis was performed of the overall trial population of men with HRRm genes (BRCA1/2, ATM, CDK12 and 11 other HRRm genes).
Results showed a statistically-significant and clinically-meaningful improvement with LYNPARZA in the primary endpoint of radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) in BRCA1/2 or ATM-mutated tumors reducing the risk of disease progression or death by a median of 7.4 months versus 3.6 months for those receiving abiraterone or enzalutamide (HR 0.34 [95% CI, 0.25-0.47], p<0.0001). LYNPARZA reduced the risk of disease progression or death by 66% for these men.
The trial also met the key secondary endpoint of rPFS in the overall HRRm population, where LYNPARZA reduced the risk of disease progression or death by 51% and improved rPFS to a median of 5.8 months vs. 3.5 months for those receiving abiraterone or enzalutamide (HR 0.49 [95% CI, 0.38-0.63], p<0.0001).
Results were presented during the Presidential Symposium at the 2019 European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) congress in Barcelona, Spain (LBA #12).
Dr. José Baselga, executive vice president, oncology R&D, AstraZeneca, said, “Results from PROfound demonstrate that, in addition to providing substantial benefit as a precision medicine for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with BRCA-mutated tumors, LYNPARZA is effective beyond just BRCA in tumors with mutations in other genes associated with homologous recombination repair. PROfound validates the concept of PARP sensitivity across multiple genes associated with homologous recombination repair in this disease and marks the first positive Phase 3 trial using a molecular biomarker to identify men for targeted treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. We are working with global health authorities to bring LYNPARZA to these patients as quickly as possible.”
Dr. Roy Baynes, senior vice president and head of global clinical development, chief medical officer, Merck Research Laboratories, said, “The results from the Phase 3 PROfound trial are a testament to Merck and AstraZeneca’s lasting commitment to patients with cancer. The trial met the primary endpoint in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer that progressed on prior hormonal therapy, a notoriously difficult-to-treat disease. The benefit seen in patients beyond just those with BRCA mutations underscores the potential value of genomic testing in prostate cancer.”
Maha Hussain, one of the principal investigators of the PROfound trial and deputy director of the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University, said, “We have seen advances in the treatment over the last 15 years for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. However, to date treatments for this state of disease continue to use ‘one size fits all’ approaches overlooking the genomic make-up of the tumor and how it could inform treatment decisions to better personalize care and impact outcomes. I am thrilled by the PROfound results and LYNPARZA’s clinically meaningful benefit, which offers the potential of a molecularly targeted treatment for this patient population with advanced disease. I am confident we are now entering a new era of personalized care and precision medicine for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.”
In the key secondary endpoint of time to pain progression (TTPP), median TTPP was not reached with LYNPARZA and was 9.92 months with abiraterone and enzalutamide in patients with BRCA1/2 or ATM mutations (HR 0.44 [95% CI, 0.22-0.91], p 0.0192).
Results also showed a trend at this interim analysis time point for improvement in overall survival (OS), another key secondary endpoint. LYNPARZA extended OS to a median of 18.5 months versus 15.1 months for abiraterone or enzalutamide in men with BRCA1/2 or ATM-mutated tumors (HR 0.64 [95% CI, 0.43-0.97], p<0.0173), of which 81% started on abiraterone or enzalutamide and, following confirmed disease progression, then switched to LYNPARZA. At this interim analysis, the OS endpoint did not meet statistical significance. In an exploratory analysis, a similar trend in OS was observed at this interim analysis in the HRRm population with a median of 17.5 months for men treated with LYNPARZA vs. 14.3 months for those receiving abiraterone or enzalutamide (HR 0.67 [95% CI, 0.49-0.93]).
The trial showed a confirmed overall response rate (ORR) a key secondary endpoint of 33.3% for LYNPARZA vs. 2.3% for abiraterone or enzalutamide in patients with BRCA1/2 or ATM mutations (p<0.0001). In an exploratory analysis of patients in the overall HRRm population, confirmed ORR was 21.7 % for LYNPARZA vs. 4.5% for patients receiving abiraterone or enzalutamide.
Summary of results i
% progression-free at 6 months
% progression-free at 12 months
Hazard ratio (95% CI)
Patients with response (%)
Odds ratio (95% CI)
Hazard ratio (95% CI)
Hazard ratio (95% CI)
NR, not reached; ORR, objective response rate; pc, physician’s choice
The safety and tolerability profile of LYNPARZA in the PROfound trial was in line with that observed in prior clinical trials. The most common adverse events (AEs) ≥20% for LYNPARZA compared to abiraterone or enzalutamide were anemia (47% vs.15%), nausea (41% vs. 19%), fatigue and asthenia (41% vs. 32%), decreased appetite (30% vs. 18%), and diarrhea (21% vs. 7%). Grade 3 or above AEs were anemia (22% vs. 5%), fatigue and asthenia (3% vs. 5%), vomiting (2% vs. 1%), dyspnea (2% vs. 0%), urinary tract infection (2% vs. 4%), nausea (1% vs. 0%), decreased appetite (1% each), diarrhea (1% vs. 0%), and back pain (1% vs. 2%). AEs led to discontinuation of treatment in 16% of patients on LYNPARZA vs. 9% on abiraterone and enzalutamide.
AstraZeneca and Merck are also exploring additional trials in prostate cancer, including the ongoing Phase 3 PROpel trial, evaluating LYNPARZA as a first-line therapy in mCRPC for patients with or without HRR mutations, in combination with abiraterone acetate.
PROfound is a prospective, multi-center, randomized, open-label, Phase 3 trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of LYNPARZA versus enzalutamide or abiraterone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who have progressed on prior treatment with a new hormonal anticancer treatment and have a qualifying tumor mutation in one of 15 genes involved in the homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway, among them BRCA 1/2 , ATM and CDK12.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
There are no contraindications for LYNPARZA.
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Myelodysplastic Syndrome/Acute Myeloid Leukemia (MDS/AML): Occurred in <1.5% of patients exposed to LYNPARZA monotherapy, and the majority of events had a fatal outcome. The duration of therapy in patients who developed secondary MDS/AML varied from <6 months to >2 years. All of these patients had previous chemotherapy with platinum agents and/or other DNA-damaging agents, including radiotherapy, and some also had a history of more than one primary malignancy or of bone marrow dysplasia.
Do not start LYNPARZA until patients have recovered from hematological toxicity caused by previous chemotherapy (≤Grade 1). Monitor complete blood count for cytopenia at baseline and monthly thereafter for clinically significant changes during treatment. For prolonged hematological toxicities, interrupt LYNPARZA and monitor blood count weekly until recovery.
If the levels have not recovered to Grade 1 or less after 4 weeks, refer the patient to a hematologist for further investigations, including bone marrow analysis and blood sample for cytogenetics. Discontinue LYNPARZA if MDS/AML is confirmed.
Pneumonitis: Occurred in <1% of patients exposed to LYNPARZA, and some cases were fatal. If patients present with new or worsening respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea, cough, and fever, or a radiological abnormality occurs, interrupt LYNPARZA treatment and initiate prompt investigation. Discontinue LYNPARZA if pneumonitis is confirmed and treat patient appropriately.
Embryo-Fetal Toxicity: Based on its mechanism of action and findings in animals, LYNPARZA can cause fetal harm. A pregnancy test is recommended for females of reproductive potential prior to initiating treatment.
Advise females of reproductive potential of the potential risk to a fetus and to use effective contraception during treatment and for 6 months following the last dose.
Advise male patients with female partners of reproductive potential or who are pregnant to use effective contraception during treatment and for 3 months following the last dose of LYNPARZA and to not donate sperm during this time.
ADVERSE REACTIONS—First-Line Maintenance BRCAm Advanced Ovarian Cancer
Most common adverse reactions (Grades 1-4) in ≥10% of patients in clinical trials of LYNPARZA in the first-line maintenance setting for SOLO-1 were: nausea (77%), fatigue (67%), abdominal pain (45%), vomiting (40%), anemia (38%), diarrhea (37%), constipation (28%), upper respiratory tract infection/influenza/ nasopharyngitis/bronchitis (28%), dysgeusia (26%), decreased appetite (20%), dizziness (20%), neutropenia (17%), dyspepsia (17%), dyspnea (15%), leukopenia (13%), UTI (13%), thrombocytopenia (11%), and stomatitis (11%).
Most common laboratory abnormalities (Grades 1-4) in ≥25% of patients in clinical trials of LYNPARZA in the first-line maintenance setting for SOLO-1 were: decrease in hemoglobin (87%), increase in mean corpuscular volume (87%), decrease in leukocytes (70%), decrease in lymphocytes (67%), decrease in absolute neutrophil count (51%), decrease in platelets (35%), and increase in serum creatinine (34%).
ADVERSE REACTIONS—Maintenance Recurrent Ovarian Cancer
Most common adverse reactions (Grades 1-4) in ≥20% of patients in clinical trials of LYNPARZA in the maintenance setting for SOLO-2 were: nausea (76%), fatigue (including asthenia) (66%), anemia (44%), vomiting (37%), nasopharyngitis/upper respiratory tract infection (URI)/influenza (36%), diarrhea (33%), arthralgia/myalgia (30%), dysgeusia (27%), headache (26%), decreased appetite (22%), and stomatitis (20%).
Study 19: nausea (71%), fatigue (including asthenia) (63%), vomiting (35%), diarrhea (28%), anemia (23%), respiratory tract infection (22%), constipation (22%), headache (21%), decreased appetite (21%), and dyspepsia (20%).
Most common laboratory abnormalities (Grades 1-4) in ≥25% of patients in clinical trials of LYNPARZA in the maintenance setting (SOLO-2/Study 19) were: increase in mean corpuscular volume (89%/82%), decrease in hemoglobin (83%/82%), decrease in leukocytes (69%/58%), decrease in lymphocytes (67%/52%), decrease in absolute neutrophil count (51%/47%), increase in serum creatinine (44%/45%), and decrease in platelets (42%/36%).
ADVERSE REACTIONS—Advanced gBRCAm ovarian cancer
Most common adverse reactions (Grades 1-4) in ≥20% of patients in clinical trials of
LYNPARZA for advanced gBRCAm ovarian cancer after 3 or more lines of chemotherapy (pooled from 6 studies) were: fatigue/asthenia (66%), nausea (64%), vomiting (43%), anemia (34%), diarrhea (31%), nasopharyngitis/upper respiratory tract infection (URI) (26%), dyspepsia (25%), myalgia (22%), decreased appetite (22%), and arthralgia/musculoskeletal pain (21%).
Most common laboratory abnormalities (Grades 1-4) in ≥25% of patients in clinical trials of LYNPARZA for advanced gBRCAm ovarian cancer (pooled from 6 studies) were: decrease in hemoglobin (90%), mean corpuscular volume elevation (57%), decrease in lymphocytes (56%), increase in serum creatinine (30%), decrease in platelets (30%), and decrease in absolute neutrophil count (25%).
ADVERSE REACTIONS—gBRCAm, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer
Most common adverse reactions (Grades 1-4) in ≥20% of patients in OlympiAD were: nausea (58%), anemia (40%), fatigue (including asthenia) (37%), vomiting (30%), neutropenia (27%), respiratory tract infection (27%), leukopenia (25%), diarrhea (21%), and headache (20%).
Most common laboratory abnormalities (Grades 1-4) in >25% of patients in OlympiAD were: decrease in hemoglobin (82%), decrease in lymphocytes (73%), decrease in leukocytes (71%), increase in mean corpuscular volume (71%), decrease in absolute neutrophil count (46%), and decrease in platelets (33%).
Anticancer Agents: Clinical studies of LYNPARZA in combination with other myelosuppressive anticancer agents, including DNA-damaging agents, indicate a potentiation and prolongation of myelosuppressive toxicity.
CYP3A Inhibitors: Avoid concomitant use of strong or moderate CYP3A inhibitors. If a strong or moderate CYP3A inhibitor must be co-administered, reduce the dose of LYNPARZA. Advise patients to avoid grapefruit, grapefruit juice, Seville oranges, and Seville orange juice during LYNPARZA treatment.
CYP3A Inducers: Avoid concomitant use of strong or moderate CYP3A inducers when using LYNPARZA. If a moderate inducer cannot be avoided, there is a potential for decreased efficacy of LYNPARZA.
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Lactation: No data are available regarding the presence of olaparib in human milk, its effects on the breastfed infant or on milk production. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in the breastfed infant, advise a lactating woman not to breastfeed during treatment with LYNPARZA and for 1 month after receiving the final dose.
Pediatric Use: The safety and efficacy of LYNPARZA have not been established in pediatric patients.
Hepatic Impairment: No adjustment to the starting dose is required in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh classification A and B). There are no data in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh classification C).
Renal Impairment: No adjustment to the starting dose is necessary in patients with mild renal impairment (CLcr=51-80 mL/min) but patients should be monitored closely for toxicity. In patients with moderate renal impairment (CLcr=31-50 mL/min), reduce the dose to 200 mg twice daily. There are no data in patients with severe renal impairment or end-stage renal disease (CLcr ≤30 mL/min).
LYNPARZA is a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor indicated:
First-Line Maintenance BRCAm Advanced Ovarian Cancer
For the maintenance treatment of adult patients with deleterious or suspected deleterious germline or somatic BRCA-mutated (gBRCAm or sBRCAm) advanced epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer who are in complete or partial response to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Select patients with gBRCAm advanced epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer for therapy based on an FDA-approved companion diagnostic for LYNPARZA.
Maintenance Recurrent Ovarian Cancer
For the maintenance treatment of adult patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer, who are in complete or partial response to platinum-based chemotherapy.
Advanced gBRCAm ovarian cancer
For the treatment of adult patients with deleterious or suspected deleterious germline BRCA-mutated (gBRCAm) advanced ovarian cancer who have been treated with 3 or more prior lines of chemotherapy. Select patients for therapy based on an FDA-approved companion diagnostic for LYNPARZA.
gBRCAm, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer
In patients with deleterious or suspected deleterious gBRCAm, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer who have been treated with chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant or metastatic setting. Patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer should have been treated with a prior endocrine therapy or be considered inappropriate for endocrine therapy. Select patients for therapy based on an FDA-approved companion diagnostic for LYNPARZA.
About LYNPARZA® (olaparib)
LYNPARZA is a first-in-class PARP inhibitor and the first targeted treatment to potentially exploit DNA damage response (DDR) pathway deficiencies, such as BRCA mutations, to preferentially kill cancer cells. Inhibition of PARP with LYNPARZA leads to the trapping of PARP bound to DNA single-strand breaks, stalling of replication forks, their collapse and the generation of DNA double-strand breaks and cancer cell death. LYNPARZA is being tested in a range of tumor types with defects and dependencies in the DDR.
LYNPARZA, which is being jointly developed and commercialized by AstraZeneca and Merck, has a broad and advanced clinical trial development program, and AstraZeneca and Merck are working together to understand how it may affect multiple PARP-dependent tumors as a monotherapy and in combination across multiple cancer types.
About Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (mCRPC)
Prostate cancer is the second-most common cancer in men, with an estimated 1.6 million new cases diagnosed worldwide in 2015 and is associated with a significant mortality rate. Development of prostate cancer is often driven by male sex hormones called androgens, including testosterone. mCRPC occurs when prostate cancer grows and spreads to other parts of the body despite the use of androgen-deprivation therapy to block the action of male sex hormones. Approximately 10-20% of men with advanced prostate cancer will develop CRPC within five years, and at least 84% of these will have metastases at the time of CRPC diagnosis. Of men with no metastases at CRPC diagnosis, 33% are likely to develop metastases within two years. Despite an increase in the number of available therapies, five-year survival for men with mCRPC, remains low.
About Homologous Recombination Repair (HRR) Mutations
Homologous recombination repair (HRR) plays a significant role in maintaining the genetic stability of cells and suppressing tumor growth by repairing damaged DNA. Mutations, or defects, in homologous recombination (HR) pathway genes – which include ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and BRCA1/2 genes – increase the risk for breast, ovarian, pancreatic, prostate and other cancers.